HgsDb: Haplogroups Database to Understand Migration and Molecular Risk Assessment
Haplogroup:- Haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share common ancestor having the same Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) mutaion in both haplotypes. It's called haplotype because it is only present in one chromosome of the pair, that is, in a haploid state. If a sufficient number of individuals are examined for their haplotypes, maps can be created, showing the distribution of various haplogroups across the world. These maps are called Haplotype Maps, contain information about the order in which SNPs appeared through time, and they provide a variety of interesting information, such as the ethnic makeup of a population, the history of past migrations of people to different parts of the world, etc.

In Genetics a biomarker is a small DNA sequence that cause disease or is associated with susceptibility to disease.
"a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention."

During the last two decades, population geneticists have comprehensively investigated the evolutionary patterns of worldwide mtDNA and Y-DNA hgs, so that now a days there is good knowledge of the global mtDNA and Y-chromosome phylogeny and the polymorphisms defining main and minor branches of the tree (basal motifs), as well as positional-mutation rates.
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